4,000 year old Kurgan burial unearthed in Georgia

An ancient burial containing chariots, gold artifacts and possible human sacrifices has been discovered by archaeologists in the country of Georgia, in the south Caucasus.

4,000 year old Kurgan burial unearthed in Georgia
Here, the roof of a 4,000-year-old burial chamber buried in a Kurgan (mound) 
in the country of Georgia [Credit: Zurab Makharadze]
The burial site, which would've been intended for a chief, dates back over 4,000 years to a time archaeologists call the Early Bronze Age, said Zurab Makharadze, head of the Centre of Archaeology at the Georgian National Museum.

Archaeologists discovered the timber burial chamber within a 39-foot-high (12 meters) mound called a kurgan. When the archaeologists reached the chamber they found an assortment of treasures, including two chariots, each with four wooden wheels.

4,000 year old Kurgan burial unearthed in Georgia
The burial chamber itself contains two chariots, seen toward the back, each of which had
 four wooden wheels (not all the wheels are visible in this picture). Three timber pillars, 
seen in this image, held the roof up. The burial chamber had been plundered (likely 
in ancient times), but many artifacts still remain [Credit: Zurab Makharadze]
The team discovered ornamented clay and wooden vessels, flint and obsidian arrowheads, leather and textile artifacts, a unique wooden armchair, carnelian and amber beads and 23 golden artifacts, including rare and artistic crafted jewelry, wrote Makharadze in the summary of a presentation he gave recently at the International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, held at the University of Basel in Switzerland.

"In the burial chamber were placed two four-wheeled chariots, both in good condition, [the] design of which represents fine ornamental details of various styles," Makharadze wrote. The chamber also contained wild fruits, he added.

4,000 year old Kurgan burial unearthed in Georgia
As the archaeologists continued to dig into the mound, more details about the design 
of the chariots appeared. The chariots, which would've been driven by oxen, predate 
the introduction of domesticated horses in the area. However no animals were
 found buried with the chariots [Credit: Zurab Makharadze]
While the human remains had been disturbed by a robbery, which probably occurred in ancient times, and were in a disordered position, the archaeologists found that seven people were buried in the chamber. "One of them was a chief and others should be the members of his family, sacrificed slaves or servants," Makharadze told Live Science in an email.

The burial dates back to a time before domesticated horses appeared in the area, Makharadze said. While no animals were found buried with the chariots, he said, oxen would have pulled them.

4,000 year old Kurgan burial unearthed in Georgia
The archaeologists found a number of well-preserved artifacts, including finds made
 of gold at the site in the country of Georgia. The red artifact seen here is actually
 the handle of a basket [Credit: Zurab Makharadze]
Other rich kurgan burials dating to the second half of the third millennium B.C. have also been found in the south Caucasus, said Makharadze in another paper he presented in February at the College de France in Paris. The appearance of these rich burials appears to be connected to interactions that occurred between nomadic people from the Eurasian steppes and farming communities within and near the south Caucasus, Makharadze said.

These interactions appear to have led to some individuals, like this chief, getting elaborate burials. The newly discovered armchair symbolizes the power that individuals like the chief had. "The purpose of the wooden armchair was the indication to power, and it was put in the kurgan as a symbol of power," Makharadze said in the email.

The kurgan was found in eastern Georgia near the municipality of Lagodekhi and was excavated in 2012.

Author: Owen Jarus | Source: LiveScience [June 25, 2014]

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