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Giant prehistoric elephant slaughtered by early humans

Research by a University of Southampton archaeologist suggests that early humans, who lived thousands of years before Neanderthals, were able to work together in groups to hunt and slaughter animals as large as the prehistoric elephant.

Giant prehistoric elephant slaughtered by early humans
Elephant tusks at Ebbsfleet [Credit: University of Southampton]
Dr Francis Wenban-Smith discovered a site containing remains of an extinct straight-tusked elephant (Palaeoloxodon antiquus) in 2003, in an area of land at Ebbsfleet in Kent, during the construction of the High Speed 1 rail link from the Channel Tunnel to London.

Investigation of the area was carried out with independent heritage organisation Oxford Archaeology, with the support of HS1 Ltd.

Excavation revealed a deep sequence of deposits containing the elephant remains, along with numerous flint tools and a range of other species such as; wild aurochs, extinct forms of rhinoceros and lion, Barbary macaque, beaver, rabbit, various forms of vole and shrew, and a diverse assemblage of snails. These remains confirm that the deposits date to a warm period of climate around 420,000 years ago, the so-called Hoxnian interglacial, when the climate was probably slightly warmer than the present day.

Since the excavation, which took place in 2004, Francis has been carrying out a detailed analysis of evidence recovered from the site, including 80 undisturbed flint artefacts found scattered around the elephant carcass and used to butcher it. The pre-historic elephant was twice the size of today's African variety and up to four times the weight of family car.

Dr Wenban-Smith comments: "Although there is no direct evidence of how this particular animal met its end, the discovery of flint tools close to the carcass confirm butchery for its meat, probably by a group of at least four individuals.

"Early hominins of this period would have depended on nutrition from large herbivores. The key evidence for elephant hunting is that, of the few prehistoric butchered elephant carcasses that have been found across Europe, they are almost all large males in their prime, a pattern that does not suggest natural death and scavenging. Although it seems incredible that they could have killed such an animal, it must have been possible with wooden spears.. We know hominins of this period had these, and an elephant skeleton with a wooden spear through its ribs was found at the site of Lehringen in Germany in 1948."

These early humans suffered local extinction in Northern Europe during the great ice age known as the Anglian glaciation 450,000 years ago, but re-established themselves as the climate grew warmer again in the following Hoxnian interglacial.

An ability to hunt large mammals, and in particular elephants, as suggested by the Ebbsfleet find, would go some way to explaining how these people then managed to push northwards again into what is now Britain. The flint artefacts of these pioneer settlers are of a characteristic type known as Clactonian, mostly comprising simple razor-sharp flakes that would have been ideal for cutting meat, sometimes with notches on them that would have helped cut through the tougher animal hide.

The discovery of this previously undisturbed Elephant grave site is unique in Britain -- where only a handful of other elephant skeletons have been found and none of which have produced similar evidence of human exploitation.

Dr Wenban-Smith explains the Ebbsfleet area would have been very different from today: "Rich fossilised remains surrounding the elephant skeleton, including pollen, snails and a wide variety of vertebrates, provide a remarkable record of the climate and environment the early humans inhabited.

"Analysis of these deposits show they lived at a time of peak interglacial warmth, when the Ebbsfleet Valley was a lush, densely wooded tributary of the Thames, containing a quiet, almost stagnant swamp."

The layer of earth containing the elephant remains and flints is overlain by a higher level of sediment, rich in so-called Acheulian tool types -- handaxes of various forms from later in the same interglacial. Controversy surrounds whether or not these represent a later wave of colonisation of Britain, or whether the Clactonians themselves evolved a more sophisticated tool-kit as they developed a more sustained occupation.

Source: University of Southampton [September 19, 2013]

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  1. Big bulls live apart from the herd made of cows and calves. Use fire to chase them into a bog and get stuck then long wooden lances to inflict enough damage to kill them.

  2. Thanks a lot. This again confirms the coastal dispersal model: Early-Pleistocene archaic Homo trekked along the coasts, where they beach-combed & dived for different sorts of littoral foods, they even butchered stranded whales in Angola (Gutierrez). Later, from the coasts, different Homo-populations ventured inland along the rivers, possibly following anadromous species such as salmon, feeding also on hard-shelled invertebrates, cattails, waterlillies & carcasses they found in shallow water or amid reeds.
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  3. "... of the few prehistoric butchered elephant carcasses that have been found across Europe, they are almost all large males in their prime, a pattern that does not suggest natural death and scavenging."

    Another possibility to consider...

    Perhaps these prime-condition bulls had been badly injured or killed by other bulls, which is not uncommon in seasonally duelling modern male African and Asian elephants who push each other around looking for an opening to thrust their long tusks like swords (for examples just do an Internet search for elephant bulls fighting to the death).
    This would explain 1) why the butchered were all male, and 2) why they were all in prime condition (young, old or weak bulls completely avoid serious fights).
    It seems to be more realistic, though not as appealing, that the only creature that could bring down a prime bull twice the size of a modern African elephant was another prime bull.
    Aside from scavenging dead elephants, maybe early humans only engaged with the severely wounded, thrusting spears by hand to finish them off.
    When big modern elephant bulls go into musth it is very evident by their exceptional aggression, altered behaviour and by the wet streaks down the sides of their heads. Early humans who were intimately associated with elephants would have understood these signs, and may even have followed especially big and aggressive bulls in musth, anticipating the occasional victims of their duels. Perhaps they even idolised recognisable regional champions who seasonally provided a feast for the human group... certainly in modern African elephant populations there are regional champions who are well known to the local people, and who remain unvanquished for many years.


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